The history of Halloween, Hallowe’en (Hallows’ Even or Hallows’ Evening), also known as Allhalloween, or All Saints Eve.
All Hallows’ Eve, or All Saints’ Eve is celebrated in several countries on 31 October. The word Halloween or Hallowe’en dates back to 1745 and is of Christian origin and means “Saints’ evening”. It comes from the Scottish term for All Hallows’ Eve (the evening before All Hallows’ Day).
It is widely believed that many Halloween traditions originated from ancient Celtic harvest festivals, particularly the Gaelic festival Samhain (pronounced Sah-ween). It was the biggest and most significant holiday of the Celtic year. At the end of summer, the Celts thought the barrier between our world and the world of ghosts and spirits was very thin. People gathered to sacrifice animals, fruits, and vegetables, they also lit bonfires in honor of the dead, to aid them on their journey, and to keep them away from the living. During the celebration, the Celts wore costumes, typically consisting of animal heads and skins, and attempted to tell each other’s fortunes. This could explain the root of wearing costumes during Halloween. These festivals may have had pagan roots; and some believe that Samhain itself was later Christianised as Halloween by the early Church.
All Hallows’ Eve
The eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows’ Day, began a three-day observance of Allhallowtide, dedicated to remembering the dead, including saints (hallows), martyrs, and all the departed. In the 9th century the influence of Christianity had spread into Celtic lands, where it gradually blended with and supplanted older Celtic rites. The Western Christian church shifted the date of All Saints’ Day to 1 November, while 2 November later became All Souls’ Day. It’s widely believed today that the church was attempting to replace the Celtic festival of the dead with a related, church-sanctioned holiday. Over time, Samhain and All Saints’/All Souls’Day have merged to create the modern Halloween. Historians have used the name ‘Samhain’ to refer to Gaelic ‘Halloween’ customs up until the 19th century. The Church also contributed to some of the more popular Halloween customs as we know them now. During the later Middle ages a person would go from house to house asking for cakes in return for praying for the souls of those in the house, known as ‘souling’ and may be the inspiration for our modern-day trick-or-treating.
In more modern times Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, Halloween costume parties, carving pumpkins into jack-o’-lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, visiting haunted attractions, telling scary stories, and watching horror films. In many parts of the world, the Christian religious observances of All Hallows’ Eve, include attending church services and lighting candles on the graves of the dead, although elsewhere it is a more commercial celebration.
The Origins of A ‘Jack-O’-Lantern’
The Term Jack-o’-lantern, originally, had nothing to do with a person named Jack, a lantern, or a carved pumpkin. In 17th-century Britain, the British often called men whose names they did not know by a common name like Jack. Thus, an unknown man carrying a lantern was sometimes called “Jack with the lantern” or “Jack of the lantern.”
At the same time, in certain areas of the world, especially marshlands, people would see strange flickering lights called ignis fatuus (foolish fire) or will-o’-the-wisp. These lights can resemble a lamp, and the closer you get to it the more it fades. These lights have entered the folklore of cultures around the world, from the Americas to Asia, and each culture gives a different explanation for the origin. Jack-o’-lantern was one of the names given to this phenomenon in southwestern England and East Anglia. The first use of the term for a carved pumpkin lantern occurred in 19th-century United States, and it’s been used ever since.
Jack-o’-lanterns were traditionally carried on All Hallows’ Eve in order to frighten evil spirits. There is a popular Irish Christian folktale associated with the jack-o’-lantern, which in folklore is said to represent a “soul who has been denied entry into both heaven and hell“.
On route home after a night’s drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest.
In Ireland and Scotland, the turnip is traditionally carved during Halloween, but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin, which is softer and larger and easier to carve. The American tradition of carving pumpkins dates back to 1837 and was originally associated with harvest, it later became associated with Halloween in the mid-to-late 19th century.